What is DNS(Domain Name System)? How It Works?

What is DNS(Domain Name System)? How It Works?

What is DNS?

Domain Name System is a Phonebook of the Internet that converts Human access information Online and translates domains to IP addresses,  so the browsers can easily load Internet resources. For example, when you browse www.amazon.com on your computer and then your computer machine makes this to a readable IP address (for example, 192.1.2.24).

Domain Name System translates Human access information like The Economic Times.com, Hindustan Times.com, Navbharat Times.com, smartiqhub.com, etc on the web browsers through Internet Protocol (IP addresses), and translates these domain names to IP addresses then it helps browsers to load Internet resources.

Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which helps other machines to find the device. DNS servers help humans memorize IP addresses like 192.168.1.1 in place of more complex IP addresses like 2100:ca00:2038:1::b629:e9a2 (in IPv6).

Everthing connected on the Internet- Computers, iPhones, Tablets, Mobile Phones, Websites, Laptops, has an Internet Protocol(IP) address like 94.182.256.14 but it is not easy to remember, so domain names such as smartiqhub.com, amazon.com, etc.. is a simple word which people can easily remember.

Hence, Domain Name System (DNS) is a main part of the Internet, which provides a way to map websites you are seeking to address for the website.

DNS Basic Introduction

When you serve content on your computer, smartphone, or laptop on any website, the Internet communicates with another website to fulfill your request by using IP addresses in form of numbers.

You can browse and go to the website, by typing IP address but it is not easy to remember so, instead of an IP address you can enter a domain name, for example, Flipkart.com, Amazon.com, smartiqhub.com, and you will visit the same website.

DNS helps to map a Number(IP address) into a Name(Domain name). You have heard about Amazon DNS Service which is a globally distributed service and converts human-readable names like www.smartiqhub.com into numeric IP addresses like 193.0.1.1 to help computers to connect with each other.

What is a top-level domain?

Top-Level Domain (TLD) which is the last word after the dot, for example, google.com in this ‘com’ is a TLD. TLDs are generally of two types: generic TLDs and country-specific TLDs.

For examples TLDs include:

  • .com

  • .org

  • .net

  • .gov

  • .biz

  • .edu.

TLD is a very important part of DNS, when you request any website like ‘smartiqhub.com’ on your browser, then DNS resolvers start searching by communicating with the TLD server. And if TLD is ‘.com’, then the resolver will contact with TLD DNS server, and provide the resolver with the IP address of smartiqhub’s origin server.

TLDs are authorized by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).  VeriSign a U.S. company operates all ‘.com’ and ‘.net’ TLDs.

TLDs are used for different purposes like each and every TLD will tell you something about its website

  • ’.com’ is for personal and for businesses.
  • ’.gov’ is for U.S. government entities.
  • ’.uk’ is for United Kingdoms domains.

What Does DNS Resolver Mean?

A Domain Name System (DNS) resolver, also known as a “DNS lookup” tool, converts web links into IP addresses. DNS resolver helps to doesn’t save addresses of multiple online nameservers, which may be difficult to manage.

Resolver helps in connecting Web services hosting and helps in domain name support, also in various hardware devices correspond to particular servers and vendors or to their client companies.

What are root name servers?

Root Name Server is basically a name server for the domain name server’s root zone, which has all the IP addresses of its Top-Level domain servers, it returns a list of the designated authoritative name servers and selects the appropriate top-level domain; hence, the server to query when looking up a top-level domain name.

Root Name Server doesn’t store all IP addresses but stores only top-level-domain servers’ IP addresses.

What is an Authoritative Name Server?

The Authoritative means, which is correct or which can be trusted, in terms of technology it is the Server that stores the actual IP addresses of a website requested by a user.

The query is received from DNS resolver which is sent by the TLD server, this gives the IP addresses of a website to resolver, which is sent to our computer by DNS resolver, that’s why our computer can communicate website server’s

How DNS Route Traffic To Your Web Application? How DNS works?

  1. When the user opens a web browser, enter www.smartiqhub.com in the address bar, and presses Enter.
  2. Then a request for www.smartiqhub.com is routed to a DNS resolver, which is typically managed by the user’s Internet service provider (ISP) which may be a cable Internet provider or a DSL Internet broadband provider, or a corporate network like Airtel, Jio Fiber, etc.
  3. After this, the DNS resolver for the ISP forwards the request for www.smartiqhub.com to a DNS root name server.
  4. Then DNS resolver for the ISP forwards the request for www.smartiqhub.com again, but this time for TLD name servers for .com domains. And then the website name server for .com domains responds to the request.
  5. Then the DNS resolver forwards the request for www.smartiqhub.com to that name server.
  6. The name server checks in the smartiqhub.com hosted zone for the www.smartiqhub.com record, gets the associated value, such as the IP address for a web server, 192.1.2.24, then it returns the IP address to the DNS resolver.
  7. Then DNS resolver got the ISP finally and the IP address that the user needs. The resolver returns that request to the web browser. The DNS resolver also stores the IP address for www.smartiqhub.com for an amount of time that you specify so that it can respond more quickly the next time someone browses to www.smartiqhub.com
  8. After that web browser sends a request for accessing www.smartiqhub.com to the IP address that it got from the DNS resolver, the place where your content is.
  9. The web server or other resource at 192.1.2.24 returns the web page for www.smartiqhub.com to the web browser, and then the web browser displays the requested page.

What is DNS(Domain Name System)? How It Works?

 

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