What is a Router Device? How does it works?

What is a Router Device? How does it works?

In this article, we will teach you What is a router device? and How does it works?, also we will discuss the components of the router and the Difference between router, switch, and hub.

What is Router?

The router is an internetworking device, which used to forward IP packets from one computer to another computer network.

It establishes a connection between two or more different computer networks.

It receives data packets from a particular network, analyzes them, and then forwards them to other computer network devices.

How does a Router Works?

Internet works on a group of networks and there are many smaller and bigger networks on the internet, which means some bigger and smaller networks create a group called a network and a router is a device that connects these different smaller and bigger networks with each other. These routers are connected to other routers in a very big network that forwards the data packets from one router to another router.

Let me explain to you with an example.

Whenever a computer sends a message to other computers then the messages are broke into IP addresses that have sender and receiver network information and the router help to read this information and decides the best route for IP packets to travel through the network.

The router is also known as Intelligent Device as it maintains routing tables that have the facilities, which data packets will send first, and finds the best route to transfer the IP packets from source to destination.

The router can use in small and in Big Networks both LAN, WAN Networks. You can use the router at home, office, school and create a connection between different networks.

What is a Router Device? How does it works?

Some Basic Features Of Router

  • The router comes with 2,4, and 8 ports.
  • The router works on Layer-3 of the OSI Model, the Network Layer.
  • The router is an intelligent device as it maintains a routing table, to create a reliable network connection
  • The router decides the best route for packets.
  • The router is helpful in big and small networks both like more than two LAN networks and WAN networks
  • Router stores Senders and Receivers IP address for the actual transfer of data packets.
  • The router uses QoS(Quality of Service) in which the router administrator can limit the traffic.

What is Routing Table?

A routing table is a set of rules, which stores network information in the form of a table.

A routing table is in the storage of the router device which contains the information of forwarding a packet along the best path toward its destination. This packet contains information about its starting and destination and Whenever a packet is received, the router examines the packet and matches it to the routing table entry providing the best match for its destination.

Routing Table

Some Internal Components of a router

  • CPU – In a router, it’s just like a RAM that stores data temporarily and when the power shuts down, all the stored information is lost.
  • RAM (Random access memory) – RAM used as a loader for loading the operating system, routing table, config files, cache, and all the buffer details.
  • ROM (Read-only memory) – It has a bootstrap program that is used to start and maintain the router.
  • NVRAM (Nonvolatile RAM) – Small storage which stores the startup configuration of a router such as routing protocol, the hostname of a router.
  • Flash memory – Image file of operating system (Cisco IOS)
  • Interfaces – It is Multiple fiscal interfaces are used to connect the network.

Difference Between ROUTER, SWITCH, HUB

Difference Between ROUTER, SWITCH, HUB



Q-1) Why we use a Router?

We use a router to connect two or more two networks to forward the data packets between networks and have a reliable network connection.

Q-2) Why Router is an Intelligent Device?

As Router uses the routing table to store the IP addresses to intelligently forward packets to the best possible network route.

Q-3) What are the internal components of a router?

  • CPU
  • RAM
  • ROM
  • Flash Memory
  • Interfaces

Q-4) On which layer of the OSI Model does the Router work?

The router works on the Network Layer(Layer-3) of OSI Model

Q-5) What is Routing?

Routing has routed the packets from one network to another which are not locally attached.


you can also read these topics:

What is Hub? and types of Hub

Components of Computer Network

What is Switch? and types of Switch

What is Network Topology? and its types

What is Computer Network and why we need it?

What is Data Transmission Modes? Types of Transmission Modes

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