Types of Network Topology | BUS, MESH, STAR, RING, TREE

In this tutorial, we will teach you Network Topologies like BUS, MESH, STAR, RING, TREE, and why they are used, and where they are used.

Network Topology

• Topology is the process of arranging the network in a pattern so or the nodes and station of a network area.
• Network topology is the process of defining the shapes of the network as physical and logical.
• Networks are defined as Physically and Logically.

Types Of Network Topology

• Logical Topology
• Physical Topology.

Logical Topology

Logical topology defines that how the data or information is transferring between two nodes or stations in a network.

Physical Topology

Physical topology defines how the nodes or devices of a network are connected with each other.

In this physical arrangement of a computer network is connected using cable and device installations.

There is always a topology included in every network, whether it is a LAN or MAN’s network.

Types of Physical Topology

• BUS Topology
• STAR Topology
• RING Topology
• MESH Topology
• TREE Topology

BUS Topology

This topology is the same as its name like a bus which is straight and also the devices connected to it like(computers, servers, printers, etc.) are connected in a single line with the main cable.

This main cable is known as BUS which acts as a backbone of a network, that is connected with each computer and each computer is connected to the next computer. On both sides, there is a line end terminator that ends the cable.

It’s an easy topology to use, and anyone can use it, you have seen in cafes, where all computers are connected with each other.

• BUS network can be used for small space areas.
• BUS requires minimum cable and is less costly than other topologies.
• Anyone can establish, easily connected.
• Generally used in cafes, small offices.

• Because of single cable dependency, any cut in the cable causes the whole network disturbed.
• Can use only a limited no of computers connected, only use for small area network.
• Speed is slow down as connected to more devices.
• Much slower than other topologies.

STAR Topology

STAR topology as same as its name devices are connected with each other like in a formation of STAR.

Each device is connected with a central node HUB/Switch, which acts as a server and the connected computer or devices act as a client.

If you want to share a piece of information with other computers connected to the node, then the information is first transfer to the central node or hub/switch then it will transfer to the decided device.

Any disturbance in computer devices doesn’t disturb the whole network but if the central node is disturbed then the whole network is disturbed.

• Easily installation and modifications
• Can increase the no of devices by upgrading the central node(hub or switch)
• Faster than BUS topologies, as data is not transferred to every device only the destination devices get the information.
• Any failure in one device cannot interrupt the other devices.

• The only disadvantage of this topology is the failure of a central hub, which fails the whole network devices.
• The cost of the Central node(hub/switch) is costlier than the BUS cables.

RING Topology

RING topology is also the same as its name RING, in which devices are connected to each other in circle formation or ring formation.

This is similar to BUS topology as all are connected to each other, but there is no termination end like in a BUS because it is in a circle formation.

Data transfer uses a TOKEN-based system from one node to another node. It means when you want to send any message to another computer connected in this topology then it uses a token to send a message and the destination device receives the token for the message.

• As you can connect more and more devices because all are connected to each other and the token-based process is used in this network doesn’t interrupt any device.

• Failure of one device is the failure of the whole network as each is connected to another device.

MESH Topology

In the MESH topology, all the devices are connected to each other directly.

There is no central hub as all are directly connected to each other. Each Single device is connected to all devices.

There is a formula to find out the number of links we needed to connect.

Number of Channels = (n(n-1)/2)
therefore, if there are 5 PC, then the formula will be (5(5-1)/2) = (5X4)/2 = 10 channels will connect.

There are two types of MESH Topology

• FULL MESH Topology
• PARTIAL Mesh Topology

FULL MESH Topology, Every node is directly connected to each and every node in a network.

PARTIAL MESH Topology, Not every node is connected to another node.

• There is always an alternative device present when one fails
• Especially used for very high traffic.
• Easily installation of new nodes.
• Provides maximum security as all are connected with each other.

• The cost is more expensive as more and more cables are required for each connection.
• Installation is time-consuming and maintenance is also not easy.

TREE Topology

TREE Topology is the same as its name TREE, in which all the devices are connected like a branch of a tree, and branches are connected to a single tree.

The whole network is divided into many parts that can be easily checked, separately if any problem is found.

This is somewhere similar to BUS topology in which all the devices are connected to a single cable, but in this, a single cable is connected to other devices connected with (hub/switch) to it.

This topology is also known as HIERARCHICAL Topology because of its hierarchical formation.

• Easily expand of new nodes.
• Other devices are not affected by a single hierarchy or branch.
• Best used in big companies where every department has a single node.

• Failure of the Backbone of the Tree disturbs the whole network.
• A Huge length of cable is required.
• Maintenance is costlier.
• Difficult to service, each node at a time of any disturbance.

What is BUS in the computer network?

A bus is a communication topology used to connect the numbers of components or devices to share information between them.

How does RING Topology work?

RING Topology uses tokens to send and receive the message from source to destination.

This token should be free, for all network devices in order to receive messages.

After the token message is generated then the token will travels in the whole network until the destination device is not found.

And After receiving the message it is removed from the destination and the token is ready to carry another piece of information or message to the other destination nodes or computer devices.

What is Router? How it works

What is Hub? and types of Hub

Components of Computer Network

What is Switch? and types of Switch

What is Network Topology? and its types

What is Computer Network and why we need it?

What is Data Transmission Media? Types of Media?

What is Data Transmission Modes? Types of Transmission Modes